During the last 15 years, our preclinical and clinical trials have consistently demonstrated that XV Technology provides an unprecedented level of information on respiratory function.

With operational Permetium scanners installed and a growing list of clinical trials underway at leading institutions, 4DMedical is committed to developing use cases for XV Technology in all major lung diseases.

Our ground-breaking work has been published in more than 80 scientific publications.

Click to download frequently requested papers

Publication links

A: Application: Studies that apply 4DMedical technologies to specific indications

T: Direct Technology: Publications describing 4DMedical technologies

B: Base Technology: Publications describing the core technological platform that 4DMedical is built upon

R: Review/Editorial publications


1. Samarage, C. R. et al. Contrast Free Angiography of the Pulmonary Vasculature. in B96. NEW POWER GENERATION: CELLS, SEX HORMONES AND IMAGING IN PULMONARY VASCULAR DISEASE A4660–A4660 (American Thoracic Society, 2017). T

2. Kim, E. H. et al. Novel Analysis of 4DCT Imaging Quantifies Progressive Increases in Anatomic Dead Space During Mechanical Ventilation in Mice. Journal of Applied Physiology jap.00903.2016 (2017). A

3. Fouras, A. et al. A Motion Field Algorithm for Interfractional 4D Tumor Tracking. International Journal of Radiation Oncology*Biology*Physics 99, E707 (2017). T

4. Dubsky, S. et al. Assessment of airway response distribution and paradoxical airway dilation in mice during methacholine challenge. Journal of Applied Physiology jap.00476.2016 (2016). A

5. Hoarau, Y. et al. Flow and Particles Deposition in Rabbit and Rat Airways Under Realistic Inflow Rate. in Advances in Fluid-Structure Interaction 133, 193–204 (Springer International Publishing, 2016). B

6. Thurgood, J. et al. Imaging lung tissue oscillations using high-speed X-ray velocimetry. Journal of synchrotron radiation 23, (2016). B

7. te Pas, A. B. et al. Optimizing lung aeration at birth using a sustained inflation and positive pressure ventilation in preterm rabbits. Pediatric research (2016). A

8. Stahr, C. S. et al. Quantification of heterogeneity in lung disease with image-based pulmonary function testing. Scientific Reports 6, (2016). A/T

9. Macindoe, D., Kitchen, M. J., Irvine, S. C., Fouras, A. & Morgan, K. S. Requirements for dynamical differential phase contrast x-ray imaging with a laboratory source. Phys. Med. Biol. 61, 8720 (2016). B

10. Samarage, C. R. et al. Technical Note: Contrast free angiography of the pulmonary vasculature in live mice using a laboratory x-ray source. Medical Physics 43, 6017–6023 (2016). T

11. Kitchen, M. J. et al. X-ray specks: low dose in vivo imaging of lung structure and function. Physics in Medicine and Biology 60, 7259–7276 (2015). A

12. Lang, J. A. R. et al. Increase in pulmonary blood flow at birth: role of oxygen and lung aeration. The Journal of Physiology 594, 1389–1398 (2015). A

13. Fouras, A. & Dubsky, S. The Role of Functional Lung Imaging in the Improvement of Pulmonary Drug Delivery. in Pulmonary Drug Delivery: Advances and Challenges 19–34 (2015). R

14. Murrie, R. P. et al. Live small-animal X-ray lung velocimetry and lung micro-tomography at the Australian Synchrotron Imaging and Medical Beamline. Journal of Synchrotron Radiation 22, 1049–1055 (2015). B

15. Murrie, R. P., Paganin, D. M., Fouras, A. & Morgan, K. S. Phase contrast x-ray velocimetry of small animal lungs: optimising imaging rates. Biomed Opt Express 7, 79–92 (2015). B

16. Dubsky, S. & Fouras, A. Imaging regional lung function: A critical tool for developing inhaled antimicrobial therapies. Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews 85, 100–109 (2015). R

17. Donnelley, M. et al. Tracking extended mucociliary transport activity of individual deposited particles: longitudinal synchrotron X-ray imaging in live mice. Journal of Synchrotron Radiation 21, 768–773 (2014). A

18. Lang, J. A. R. et al. Ventilation/perfusion mismatch during lung aeration at birth. Journal of Applied Physiology 117, 535–543 (2014). A

19. Dubsky, S., Thurgood, J., Henon, Y. & Fouras, A. A Low Dose, High Spatio-Temporal Resolution System For Real-Time Four-Dimensional Lung Function Imaging. in C36. IMAGING AND THE LUNG: A RAPIDLY EVOLVING FIELD A4316–A4316 (American Thoracic Society, 2014). T

20. Kitchen, M. J. et al. Changes in Positive End-Expiratory Pressure Alter the Distribution of Ventilation within the Lung Immediately after Birth in Newborn Rabbits. PLoS ONE 9, e93391 (2014). A

21. Murrie, R. P. et al. Feasibility study of propagation-based phase-contrast X-ray lung imaging on the Imaging and Medical beamline at the Australian Synchrotron. Journal of Synchrotron Radiation 21, 430–445 (2014). T

22. Dubsky, S., Henon, Y., Jesudason, E., Fouras, A. & Thurgood, J. Heart-lung interactions: a vital source of gas mixing within the lungs. in D52. GAS EXCHANGE IN STEADY STATE, ALTITUDE, AND EXERCISE A6275–A6275 (Am Thoracic Soc, 2014). A

23. Morgan, K. S. et al. In vivo X-ray imaging reveals improved airway surface hydration after a therapy designed for cystic fibrosis. American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine 190, 469–472 (2014). B

24. Donnelley, M. et al. Non-invasive airway health assessment: Synchrotron imaging reveals effects of rehydrating treatments on mucociliary transit in-vivo. Scientific Reports 4, (2014). A

25. Carnibella, R. P., Kitchen, M. J. & Fouras, A. Decoding the structure of granular and porous materials from speckled phase contrast X-ray images. Optics Express 21, 19153 (2013). B

26. Wheeler, K. et al. Establishing lung gas volumes at birth: interaction between positive end-expiratory pressures and tidal volumes in preterm rabbits. Pediatric Research 73, 734–741 (2013). A

27. Hooper, S. B. et al. Expired CO 2 levels indicate degree of lung aeration at birth. PLoS One 8, e70895 (2013). A

28. Leong, A. F. T. et al. High spatiotemporal resolution measurement of regional lung air volumes from 2D phase contrast x-ray images. Medical Physics 40, 041909 (2013). B

29. Morgan, K. S. et al. Measuring Airway Surface Liquid Depth in Ex Vivo Mouse Airways by X-Ray Imaging for the Assessment of Cystic Fibrosis Airway Therapies. PLoS ONE 8, e55822 (2013). B

30. Ng, I., Paganin, D. M. & Fouras, A. Optimization of in-line phase contrast particle image velocimetry using a laboratory x-ray source. Journal of Applied Physics 112, 074701 (2012). B

31. Samarage, C. R., Carberry, J., Sheard, G. J. & Fouras, A. Polynomial element velocimetry (PEV): a technique for continuous in-plane velocity and velocity gradient measurements for low Reynolds number flows. Measurement Science and Technology 23, 105304 (2012). B

32. Carnibella, R. P., Fouras, A. & Kitchen, M. J. Single-exposure dual-energy-subtraction X-ray imaging using a synchrotron source. Journal of Synchrotron Radiation 19, 954–959 (2012). B

33. Dubsky, S., Hooper, S. B., Siu, K. K. W. & Fouras, A. Synchrotron-based dynamic computed tomography of tissue motion for regional lung function measurement. Journal of The Royal Society Interface 9, 2213–2224 (2012). T

34. Siew, M. L. et al. The role of lung inflation and sodium transport in airway liquid clearance during lung aeration in newborn rabbits. Pediatric Research 73, 443–449 (2012). A

35. Dubsky, S. et al. Computed tomographic X-ray velocimetry for simultaneous 3D measurement of velocity and geometry in opaque vessels. Experiments in Fluids 52, 543–554 (2012). T

36. Carnibella, R. P., Kitchen, M. J. & Fouras, A. Determining particle size distributions from a single projection image. Optics Express 20, 15962 (2012). B

37. Donnelley, M., Morgan, K. S., Siu, K. K. & Parsons, D. W. Dry deposition of pollutant and marker particles onto live mouse airway surfaces enhances monitoring of individual particle mucociliary transit behaviour. Journal of synchrotron radiation 19, 551–558 (2012). A

38. Xiong, T. et al. Flow and particles deposition in anatomically realistic airways. Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering 15, 56–58 (2012). B

39. Thurgood, J. et al. Functional Lung Imaging during HFV in Preterm Rabbits. PLoS ONE 7, e48122 (2012). A

40. Dubsky, S., Hooper, S. B., Siu, K. K. W. & Fouras, A. in vivo tomographic velocimetry of the lung for the detailed study of lung disease and its treatments. in Developments in X-Ray Tomography VIII (2012). T

41. Jamison, R. A. et al. Functional Imaging to Understand Biomechanics: A Critical Tool for the Study of Biology, Pathology and the Development of Pharmacological Solutions. Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology 13, 2128–2140 (2012). R

42. Thurgood, J. et al. Mapping cardiogenic oscillations using synchrotron-based phase contrast CT imaging. in Developments in X-Ray Tomography VIII (2012). B

43. Samarage, C. R., Carberry, J., Hourigan, K. & Fouras, A. Optimisation of temporal averaging processes in PIV. Experiments in Fluids 52, 617–631 (2011). B

44. Siew, M. L. et al. Surfactant Increases the Uniformity of Lung Aeration at Birth in Ventilated Preterm Rabbits. Pediatric Research 70, 50–55 (2011). A

45. Nguyen, C. V., Carberry, J. & Fouras, A. Volumetric-correlation PIV to measure particle concentration and velocity of microflows. Experiments in Fluids 52, 663–677 (2011). B

46. Fouras, A. et al. Altered Lung Motion is a Sensitive Indicator of Regional Lung Disease. Annals of Biomedical Engineering 40, 1160–1169 (2011). A/T

47. Hooper, S. B. et al. Combined lung imaging and respiratory physiology research at SPring-8. Synchrotron Radiation News 24, 19–23 (2011). A

48. Higgins, S. P., Samarage, C. R., Paganin, D. M. & Fouras, A. Holographic correlation velocimetry. in Proc. 9th International Symposium on Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV 11) (2011). B

49. Irvine, S. C., Paganin, D. M., Jamison, R. A., Dubsky, S. & Fouras, A. Vector tomographic X-ray phase contrast velocimetry utilizing dynamic blood speckle. Optics Express 18, 2368 (2010). B

50. Kitchen, M. J. et al. A new design for high stability pressure-controlled ventilation for small animal lung imaging. Journal of Instrumentation 5, T02002 (2010). B

51. Dubsky, S. et al. Computed tomographic x-ray velocimetry. Applied Physics Letters 96, 023702 (2010). T

52. Nguyen, C. V., Fouras, A. & Carberry, J. Improvement of measurement accuracy in micro PIV by image overlapping. Experiments in Fluids 49, 701–712 (2010). B

53. Nguyen, C. V., Fouras, A. & Carberry, J. Image Overlapping to Improve Micro PIV Accuracy. in Proc. 8th International Symposium on Particle Image Velocimetry – PIV09 (2009). B

54. Siew, M. L. et al. Inspiration regulates the rate and temporal pattern of lung liquid clearance and lung aeration at birth. Journal of Applied Physiology 106, 1888–1895 (2009). A

55. Fouras, A. et al. The past, present, and future of x-ray technology for in vivo imaging of function and form. Journal of Applied Physics 105, 102009 (2009). R

56. Fouras, A. et al. In-vivo Synchrotron PIV for the measurement of airway motion. in Proc. 8th International Symposium on Particle Image Velocimetry — PIV09 (2009). B

57. Irvine, S. C., Paganin, D. M., Dubsky, S., Lewis, R. A. & Fouras, A. Phase retrieval for improved multi-dimensional velocimetric analysis of X-ray blood flow speckle patterns. in (2009). B

58. Siew, M. L. et al. Positive end-expiratory pressure enhances development of a functional residual capacity in preterm rabbits ventilated from birth. Journal of Applied Physiology 106, 1487–1493 (2009). A

59. Donnelley, M. et al. Real-time non-invasive detection of inhalable particulates delivered into live mouse airways. Journal of Synchrotron Radiation 16, 553–561 (2009). A

60. Fouras, A., Jacono, D. L., Nguyen, C. V. & Hourigan, K. Volumetric correlation PIV: a new technique for 3D velocity vector field measurement. Experiments in Fluids 47, 569–577 (2009). B

61. Fouras, A. et al. Engineering Imaging: Using particle image velocimetry to see physiology in a new light. Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology 36, 238–247 (2009). R

62. Nesbitt, W. S. et al. A shear gradient–dependent platelet aggregation mechanism drives thrombus formation. Nature Medicine 15, 665–673 (2009). B

63. te Pas, A. B. et al. Effect of Sustained Inflation Length on Establishing Functional Residual Capacity at Birth in Ventilated Premature Rabbits. Pediatric Research 66, 295–300 (2009). A

67. Nguyen, C., Fouras, A. & Carberry, J. Control of the depth of correlation in micro-PIV using a novel post-processing method. in XXII ICTAM (2008). B

68. Kitchen, M. J. et al. Dynamic measures of regional lung air volume using phase contrast x-ray imaging. Physics in medicine and biology 53, 6065 (2008). A

69. Fouras, A., Dusting, J., Lewis, R. & Hourigan, K. Three-dimensional synchrotron x-ray particle image velocimetry. Journal of Applied Physics 102, 064916 (2007). T

70. Fouras, A., Jacono, D. L. & Hourigan, K. Target-free Stereo PIV: a novel technique with inherent error estimation and improved accuracy. Experiments in Fluids 44, 317–329 (2007). B

71. Fouras, A., Dusting, J. & Hourigan, K. A simple calibration technique for stereoscopic particle image velocimetry. Experiments in Fluids 42, 799–810 (2007). B

72. Fouras, A., Hourigan, K., Kawahashi, M. & Hirahara, H. An improved, free surface, topographic technique. J Vis9, 49–56 (2006). B

73. Fouras, A. & Soria, J. Accuracy of out-of-plane vorticity measurements derived from in-plane velocity field data. Experiments in Fluids25, 409–430 (1998). B

74. Dubsky, S., Thurgood, J., Fouras, A., R. Thompson, B. & Sheard, G. J. Cardiogenic Airflow in the Lung Revealed Using Synchrotron-Based Dynamic Lung Imaging. Scientific Reports8, (2018). A/T

75. Yen S, Preissner M, Bennett E, Dubsky S, Carnibella R, Murrie R, Fouras A, Dargaville PA, Zosky GR: Interaction between regional lung volumes and ventilator-induced lung injury in the normal and endotoxemic lung. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 2020, 318(3):L494-L499.

76. Murrie RP, Werdiger F, Donnelley M, Lin YW, Carnibella RP, Samarage CR, Pinar I, Preissner M, Wang J, Li J et al: Real-time in vivo imaging of regional lung function in a mouse model of cystic fibrosis on a laboratory X-ray source. Sci Rep 2020, 10(1):447.

77. Yen S, Preissner M, Bennett E, Dubsky S, Carnibella R, O’Toole R, Roddam L, Jones H, Dargaville PA, Fouras A et al: The Link between Regional Tidal Stretch and Lung Injury during Mechanical Ventilation. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 2019, 60(5):569-577.

78. Preissner M, Murrie RP, Pinar I, Werdiger F, Carnibella RP, Zosky GR, Fouras A, Dubsky S: High resolution propagation-based imaging system for in vivo dynamic computed tomography of lungs in small animals. Phys Med Biol 2018, 63(8):08NT03.

79. Preissner M, Murrie RP, Bresee C, Carnibella RP, Fouras A, Weir EK, Dubsky S, Pinar IP, Jones HD: Application of a novel in vivo imaging approach to measure pulmonary vascular responses in mice. Physiol Rep 2018, 6(19):e13875.

80. Goonan GW, Fouras A, Dubsky S: Array-source X-ray velocimetry. Opt Express 2018, 26(2):935-950.

81. Flemmer AW, Thio M, Wallace MJ, Lee K, Kitchen MJ, Kerr L, Roehr CC, Fouras A, Carnibella R, Jani JC et al: Lung hypoplasia in newborn rabbits with a diaphragmatic hernia affects pulmonary ventilation but not perfusion. Pediatr Res 2017, 82(3):536-543.